Textile people must know the basics of textiles!

  1、 Definition

  Fiber is a natural or synthetic fine filamentous material, fabric fiber refers to the fiber used to fabric cloth.

  2、 Fabric fiber characteristics

  Fabric fiber has a certain length, fineness, elasticity, strength and other good physical properties. Also has a good chemical stability, for example: cotton, wool, silk, hemp and other natural fibers are ideal fabric fiber.

  3、 Fabric fiber classification

  Natural fiber and chemical fiber

  ① Natural fiber includes plant fiber, animal fiber and mineral fiber.

  A plant fiber such as: cotton, hemp, fruit fiber.

  B animal fibers such as: wool, wool-free, silk.

  C mineral fibers such as: asbestos.

  ② Chemical fibers include recycled fibers, synthetic fibers and inorganic fibers.

  A recycled fibers such as: viscose fiber, acetate fiber.

  B synthetic fibers such as: nylon, polyester, acrylic, spandex, spandex, polypropylene, etc.

  C Inorganic fiber such as: glass fiber, metal fiber, etc.

  4、 Fabric performance of common fabric fiber

  ① Wool: moisture absorption, elasticity, taking performance are good, not resistant to insects, suitable for acid and metal combined with dyes.

  ② Silk: moisture absorption, breathable, complete and good taking performance, suitable for acid and direct dyes.

  ③ cotton: breathable, breathable, good performance, insect resistance, suitable for direct reduction of azo, alkaline medium, sulfur, reactive dyes.

  ④ Viscose fiber: moisture absorption, good air permeability, bright colors, wide sources of raw materials, low cost, close to the nature of natural fibers, applicable dyestuff with cotton.

  ⑤ Polyester: fabric, straight, cool, good conformability, wear resistance, dimensional stability, easy to wash and dry, suitable for disperse dyes, diazo disperse dyes, soluble reduction dyes.

  ⑥ Nylon: very good abrasion resistance, poor air permeability, suitable for acid dyes, disperse dyes.

  (7) Acrylic: good looseness, fur feeling, suitable for disperse dyes, cationic dyes.



  Identification of fiber

  1、 Identification methods

  ① The methods of identification include handfeel, visual inspection, combustion, microscopy, dissolution, drug coloring and infrared complete spectrum. In the actual identification, often need to use a variety of methods, comprehensive analysis and research after the results.

  ② The general identification steps are as follows.

  A. First identify natural fibers and chemical fibers by combustion method.

  B. If it is a natural fiber, then use the microscopic viewing method to identify various types of plant fibers and animal fibers. If it is a chemical fiber, then combined with the fiber melting point, specific gravity, refractive index, dissolving properties and other differences are distinguished one by one.

  C. In the identification of mixed fibers and blended chemical fiber fabric yarn, generally available microscopic viewing to confirm that it contains several fibers, and then use the appropriate method to identify one by one.

  D. For the coloring or finishing of the fiber, generally first color stripping or other appropriate pretreatment, in order to ensure reliable identification results.

  2, the burning properties of common fibers

  3、Fiber calculation methods

  ① fixed length system.

  A. TEX: The weight of a 1000 meter length of yarn at a nominal moisture return rate is called TEX.

  Formula: TEX = (G/L) X 1000

  Where: G is the weight of the yarn (g), L is the length of the yarn (m)

  B. Denier: The weight of a 9000 meter long yarn at a metric moisture return rate is called denier.

  Common formula: NTEX= (G/L) X9000

  Where: G is the weight of the silk (grams), L is the length of the silk (meters)

  ② fixed weight system.

  A. Number of metric counts (metric): the number of meters of length that 1 gram of yarn (silk) has.

  Male: NM (N) = L/G

  Where: 1 is the length of the yarn (silk) (m), G is the weight of the yarn (silk) (g)

  B. Count (British Count): 1 pound of spun yarn with 840 yards of length.

  Common formula: NE (S) = L/(G X 840)

  Where: L is the length of the yarn (yard), G is the weight of the yarn (yarn) (pounds).

  4、 Common raw materials used for bedding

  ① pure cotton yarn: 36TEX (16S), 28TEX (21S), 18X2TEX32S/2) 15TEX 40S), 14X2TEX (42S/2), 10X2TEX (60S/2)

  ②Polyester cotton yarn thread: 20TEX (30XS), 15TEX (40S), 13TEX (4/S)


  Fabric organization

  1 、 Definition

  Fabric is in the loom by the two systems of perpendicular to each other spinning yarn, according to the law of interlacing, that is, the warp and weft line according to the law of mutual sinking, so that the surface of the fabric to form a certain pattern and pattern, this organization is called fabric organization.

  2, fabric organization classification

  ① Original organization: is a simple fabric organization, also known as the basic organization.

  It contains plain tissue, twill tissue and satin tissue three kinds.

  ② small pattern organization: is formed by the above three basic tissue changes, joint.

  Such as mountain-shaped twill, sharp twill.


  ③ complex organization: and contains two organizations (woven into thick pile, cotton pile blanket, etc.), pile organization (such as corduroy fabric), towel organization (towel fabric), double layer organization (towel fabric) and leno organization.

  ④ Large pattern organization: also known as the long flower organization, more woven flowers, birds, fish and insects, birds and animals and other beautiful patterns.

  ⑤ Satin organization: the surface of the cloth is smooth but not strong, easy to scratch, easy to pile.

  3, the density of the fabric

  Density refers to the number of warp and weft yarns per unit length of the finished fabric, commonly used 10 square centimeters or 1 square

  Square inches in the number of spun yarn roots.

  Bedding fabric common density: 30S yarn 78 * 65, 78 * 54, 20S yarn 60 * 60, 40S yarn 90 * 90, 110 * 80, 133 * 72, 28S yarn 70 * 60, unit: root / 1 inch.

  4、 The moisture return rate of the fabric, and the metric weight

  ① Moisture regain rate = (wet weight - dry weight) / dry weight X 100%

  The nominal moisture return rate: cotton yarn 8.5%, cotton cloth 8%, polyester cotton yarn 65/35 cloth 3.06%, polyester

  cotton 50/50, cloth 4.2%

  ② Fair weight: the weight of fabric at a fair moisture return rate is the fair weight.


  Classification of fabric products

  1 、 According to the use

  can be divided into three categories of fabric goods for clothing, fabric goods for decoration and industrial supplies.

  ① Clothes fabric products include various fabrics for making work clothes and sewing thread, elastic band, collar lining, lining and other textile accessories and knitted garments, gloves, socks, etc.

  ② Decorative fabric products in the variety of structure, weave pattern and color matching and other aspects than other fabric products to have outstanding features, can also be said to be a kind of arts and crafts.

  Can be divided into indoor supplies, bedding and outdoor supplies, including home cloth and restaurant bath room supplies, such as: carpets, sofa sets, chairs, wall carpets, stickers, like covers, textiles, curtains, towels, tea towels, tablecloths, handkerchiefs, etc.; bedding contains bed covers, sheets, quilt tops, covers, blankets, towel quilts, pillowcases, pillowcases, etc.. Outdoor products include artificial turf, etc.

  ③ Industrial fabrics are widely used, and there are many varieties, such as canopy cloth, gun clothing, filter cloth, screen, road base cloth, etc.

  2、 According to the production method

  Divided into six categories: thread, tape, rope, woven fabric, fabric cloth, etc.

  ① thread type: fabric fiber spinning and finishing into yarn, more than two yarn twist synthetic line.

  ② Band category: narrow or tubular fabrics, known as the band category.

  ③ rope class: multi-stranded thread twisted together into a rope.

  ④ woven fabrics: the adoption of warp and weft interlaced fabric called woven fabrics.

  ⑤ knitted fabrics: spun yarns into circles and each other into a series of fabrics and directly formed clothing items for knitted fabrics; ⑥ nonwoven fabrics: not by traditional fabrics.

  ⑥ Non-woven fabrics: not by the traditional fabric process, but by the fiber laying network finishing treatment and the formation of sheet fabrics, called non-fabric fabric.


  Weft or warp yarn of the fabric

  The length parallel to the edge of the fabric is called the length, and the direction of the length is the radial direction of the fabric; the length perpendicular to the edge of the fabric is called the effective width, and the direction of the effective width is the weft direction of the fabric.

  In weaving, the yarn used in the radial direction is the warp yarn, and the yarn used in the weft direction is called the weft yarn.


  Shrinkage of the fabric

  1, the shrinkage of the fabric

  Fabric shrinkage refers to the fabric in the washing or soaking, the fabric shrinkage percentage.

  Generally speaking, the shrinkage rate of large fabrics is synthetic fibers and their blends of chemical fiber fabrics, followed by woolen fabrics, hemp fabrics, cotton fabrics in the middle, shrinkage is larger, while the large is viscose fibers, rayon, artificial wool fabrics.

  2, the factors that produce shrinkage of woven fabrics

  ① Fabric raw materials are different, the shrinkage rate is different.

  Generally speaking, moisture-absorbing fibers, fiber expansion after immersion, the diameter increases, the length shortens, the shrinkage rate is large. Such as some viscose fiber water absorption rate of up to 13%, and synthetic fiber fabric moisture absorption is poor, its shrinkage rate is small.

  ② fabric density is different, the shrinkage rate is also different.

  Such as warp and weft density is similar, its warp and weft shrinkage rate is also close. The warp density of the fabric, the warp shrinkage is large, and vice versa, the weft density is greater than the weft density of the fabric, the weft shrinkage is also large.

  ③ fabric yarn count different thickness, shrinkage rate is also different.

  Yarn count coarse cloth shrinkage rate is large, yarn count fine fabric shrinkage rate is small.

  ④ Fabric production process is different, the shrinkage rate is also different.

  Generally speaking, the fabric in the weaving and dyeing process, the fiber to stretch many times, finishing time is long, the applied tension of the fabric shrinkage rate is large, and vice versa is small.


  How to identify the fabric

  The feel of the fabric is an important element that people use to identify the quality of the fabric quality.

  Specifically, the sense of touching the fabric with the hand in the psychological response, due to the different varieties of fabric, the quality of high and low differences, the effect of the feel of the fabric, there is also a big difference. Hand feel has the following aspects.

  ① whether the fabric body and bones are stiff and loose.

  ② fabric surface of the complete smooth and rough.

  ③ fabric soft and hard.

  ④ the thinness and thickness of the fabric.

  ⑤ the cold and warm of the fabric.

  ⑥ fabric to the skin stimulation and no thorn less exciting feeling.

  For example: hand touching the silk spinning products have a cool feeling; pure wool fabric has a warm feeling; feel fine and smooth indeed cotton fabrics are more high yarn weaving copy made; feel rough more for the low yarn fabrics.

  Other, people can also use the role of force, with the hand stretching, grasping the grain and other actions, and then through the eyes to see, the feeling of the hand, you can infer the elasticity of the fabric, strength, wrinkle resistance and fiber categories.

  But in general, hand feeling is an important tool when buying fabrics and workwear.


  Pure cotton woven fabric

  1. Definition

  Cotton woven fabric is cotton as the raw material, through the loom, by the warp and weft yarn vertical and horizontal sinking and interlocking fabric products.

  2, pure cotton fabrics are divided into

  ① white cloth: general cloth, fine cloth, coarse cloth, canvas, twill this color cotton cloth, the original color cloth.

  ② color cloth: vulcanized blue cloth, vulcanized ink cloth, shilling blue cloth, shilling gray cloth, color poplin, various colors of khaki, various colors of tweed.

  ③ cloth: is printed and dyed on a variety of colors and patterns of cloth.

  Such as: plain printing cloth, printing twill cloth, printing beige, printing straight tribute.

  ④ color woven cloth: it is the yarn or thread first after the color, and then woven on the machine into the cloth such as stripes, sheets, velvet, thread, decorative cloth, etc..

  3, the characteristics of pure cotton fabrics

  ① Moisture absorption: cotton fibers have good moisture absorption, under normal circumstances, the fibers can draw moisture from the surrounding atmosphere, the moisture content of 8-10%, so it touches human skin, so that people feel soft and not stiff.

  If the cotton humidity increases, the surrounding temperature is higher, the weight of water contained in the fiber will all evaporate and dissipate, so that the fabric remains in a state of water balance, so that people feel comfortable.

  ② moisture retention: because cotton fiber is a poor conductor of heat and electricity, heat transfer coefficient is very low, and because the cotton fiber itself has porous, high elasticity advantages, between the fibers can accumulate a lot of air, air and is a poor conductor of heat and electricity, so, cotton fiber fabric products have good moisture retention, wearing cotton fabric work clothes make people feel warm.

  ③ heat resistance: cotton fabrics heat resistance is good, in the Celsius 110C below, will only cause the evaporation of water on the fabric, will not damage the fiber, so cotton fabrics at room temperature, wearing the use, cleaning printing and dyeing on the fabric are not affected, thus improving the cotton fabrics washable and wearable taking performance.

  ④ alkali resistance: cotton fiber resistance to alkali, cotton fibers in alkali solution, fiber destruction does not occur, the performance is conducive to taking after the cleaning of pollution, disinfection and impurities, but also pure cotton textile fabrics for coloring, printing and finishing of various processes, to produce more cotton weaving new varieties.

  ⑤ Health: cotton fiber is a natural fiber, its main component is cellulose, there are a small amount of wax-like substances and nitrogenous substances and pectin.

  Cotton fabric by many aspects of testing and practice, weaving and skin contact without any stimulation, no negative effects, long wear on the human body is beneficial and harmless, good health performance.


  Man-made fiber fabrics (chemical fiber)

  1 、 Definition

  Chemical fiber is the use of natural polymer substances or synthetic polymer substances, by the chemical process of finishing the fabric fiber obtained by the general term.

  2, classification (according to the raw materials and production methods)

  Man-made fibers: is a large production of chemical fibers, it is the use of cellulose or protein natural polymer substances such as wood, bagasse, reeds, soybeans, cheese, etc. as raw materials, by chemical and mechanical finishing.

  For example: man-made cotton, man-made silk, man-made wool, tiger wood cotton, rich cotton.

  ② Synthetic fiber: synthetic fiber is a major category of chemical fibers, it is the adoption of petrochemical industry and the coking industry in the by-products.

  For example: polyester, nylon, eye spandex, vinylon, polypropylene, chlorine spandex, etc. are all synthetic fibers.


  Blended chemical fiber fabric fabric

  Blended chemical fiber fabrics chemical fiber fabrics are chemical fibers and other cotton, wool, silk, hemp and other natural fibers mixed spinning woven fabric products.

  For example: polyester-cotton fabric, polyester-wool wada tweed, etc.


  Fabric products washing, ironing, collection, storage points

  1、 The key parts of the garment



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